Thursday, September 27, 2007

Her Majesty - The Cat

Cat With a Bat Cartoon
(* * *)
Lion Cat
(* * *)
Cats Talking
Sphynx Cats
U mraku vide 50% bolje od ljudi, zahvaljujući velikoj gustoći receptora.
Sluh im je osjetljiviji od psećeg i tri put bolji od ljudskog.
Mačke su izraziti individualisti. Uz ljude je već oko 3.500 godina.
Mužjaci se, kad dosegnu polnu zrelost, uglavnom raziđu, dok žensko potomstvo ostaje uz majku na njenoj teritoriji i povećava grupu.
Polno sazrevaju između 6 i 8 mjeseca života, ali pun telesni razvoj završavaju tek nekoliko meseci kasnije.
Mačka u proseku nosi 63 do 65 dana.
Mačke dolaze na svet s' nizom instinkta, ali neke oblike ponašanja koji se na to nadovezuju moraju sa strpljenjem i trudom naučiti.(npr. lov)
Nakon treće nedelje starosti mačića, mačka počne donositi lovinu.
U početku, mačka samo pred mačićima pojede već mrtvu lovinu.
Kasnije je donese živu, i pred mačićima je ubije i ostavi njima da pokušaju jesti.
Na kraju, donese živu lovinu i pusti mačiće da je hvataju.
Ako mačići ne dobiju tu pouku od svoje majke, ili je majka loš lovac, verovatno ti mačići nikada neće biti dobri lovci.
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
The particularly loose skin at the back of the neck is known as the scruff, and is the area by which a mother cat grips her kittens to carry them.
Unlike dogs and most mammals, cats walk by moving both legs on one side and then both legs on the other.
Most mammals move legs on alternate sides in sequence.
Cats share this unusual gait with camels, giraffes, some horses, and a select few other mammals. Cats have highly advanced hearing, eyesight, taste, and touch receptors, making the cat extremely sensitive among mammals.
Humans and cats have a similar range of hearing on the low end of the scale, but cats can hear much higher-pitched sounds, up to 64 kHz, which is 1.6 octaves above the range of a human, and even one octave above the range of a dog.
A domestic cat's sense of smell is about fourteen times as strong as a human's.
The temperament of a cat can vary depending on the breed and socialization.
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. Daily durations of sleep vary, usually 12–16 hours, with 13–14 being the average.
The normal body temperature of a cat is between 38 and 39 °C (101 and 102.2 °F).
Humans have a normal temperature of approximately 36.8 °C (98.6 °F).
A domestic cat's normal heart rate ranges from 140 to 220 beats per minute (dependent on how excited the cat is). For a cat at rest, the average heart rate should be between 150 and 180 bpm, about twice that of a human.
Many people characterize cats as 'solitary' animals. Cats are highly social; a primary difference in social behavior between cats and dogs is that cats do not have a social survival strategy - this only means that cats take care of their basic needs on their own.
Living with humans is a symbiotic social adaptation which has developed over thousands of years. It is certain that the cat thinks of the human differently than it does of other cats. This can be seen in the difference in body and vocal language it uses with the human, when compared to how it communicates with other cats in the household. Some have suggested that, psychologically, the human keeper of a cat is a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother. Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. Height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its "territory" and become aware of activities of people and other pets in the area. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats are known to strike prey by pouncing from such a perch as a tree branch, as does a leopard. Height, therefore, can also give cats a sense of security and prestige.
Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill birds, mice, rats, scorpions, cockroaches, grasshoppers, and other small animals in their environment. They often present such trophies to their owner. The motivation is not entirely clear, but friendly bonding behaviors are often associated with such an action. It is probable that cats in this situation expect to be praised for their symbolic contribution to the group. Some theories suggest that cats see their owners gone for long times of the day and assume they are out hunting, as they always have plenty of food available. It is thought that a cat presenting its owner with a dead animal thinks it's 'helping out' by bringing home the kill. In simple terms, cats adopt humans into their social group, and share excess kill with others in the group according to the local pecking order, in which humans place at or near the top.
Cat Fancy has a full list of plants harmful to cats.(philodendron, easter lily, onions, garlic)
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks old (the recommended minimum age by Fédération Internationale Féline)
The domestic cat and its closest wild ancestor both possess 38 chromosomes. Indoor cats typically live 14 to 20 years.

Smederevo - My Hometown

City HallPosition of the region in Serbia
Fortress Map
The church of Saint Virgin (XV century)

In Serbian, the city is known as Smederevo (Смедерево), in Latin as Semendria.
Smederevo (Смедерево) is a city and municipality in Serbia on the Danube River at 44.67° North, 20.93° East.
In 2002. the city had a total population of 77,808, and the surrounding municipality had a population of 109,809.
Ethnic groups:
104 222 Serbs
1 801 Roma
533 Montenegrins
354 Macedonians
296 Yugoslavs
198 Croats
144 Hungarians ...
Serbian prince Đurađ Branković built the Smederevo fortresss in 1430. as new Serbian capital.
Smederevo was the residence of Branković and the capital of Serbia from 1430. until 1439, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire after a two months siege.
In 1444. according to the Peace of Szeged between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the Sultan gave back Smederevo to Đurađ Branković, the ally of John Hunyadi.
After Hunyadi broke the peace treaty Đurađ Branković remained neutral.
Serbia became a battleground territory between Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottomans so the angry Branković captured Hunyadi after his defeat at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Hunyadi was imprisoned in Smederevo fortress for a short time.
In 1454. Sultan Mehmed II sieged Smederevo and devastated Serbia.
In 1459. Smederevo was captured by the Ottomans after the death of Branković. The town became a Turkish border-fortress, and played an important part in Hungarian-Ottoman wars until 1526.
In autumn 1476. a joint army of Hungarians and Serbs tried to capture the fortress from the Ottomans. They built three wood counter-fortresses, but after months of siege Sultan Mehmed II himself came to drive them away. After fierce fighting the Hungarians agreed to march off.
In 1494. Pál Kinizsi tried to capture Smederevo from the Ottomans but he was stricken with palsy and died.
In 1512. John Zápolya sieged unsuccessfully the town.
During the First Serbian uprising in 1806, the city became a temporary capital of Serbia, as well as the seat of Praviteljstvujušči sovjet, a government headed by Dositej Obradović.
During World War II, the city was occupied by German forces. On June 5, 1941. a catastrophic explosion of German ammunition arsenal severely damaged the fortress and killed thousands of people in the city.

Dominating the Danube, its medieval fortress imposes a respect by its dimensions and by its history.
Smederevo medieval fortress on the Danube downstream from Belgrade, built between 1428 and 1430 during the reign of Despot Djuradj Brankovic, the last of medieval Serbia's rulers. was the most significant and still is the largest castle on the Danube.
It was a bastion separating the inner fortress from the outer walls bears a large brickwork cross, and still very well preserved inscription mentioning constraction date as 1430.
Smederevo's medieval fortress exchanged hands several times during the Austro-Turkish wars of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The fortress was the seat of the Turkish administrator for Serbia until when he moved to Belgrade.
It was also the seat of the Legislative Council before the council was transferred to Belgrade.
Smederevo has been known in the Serbian history as the capital of the kingdom of Serbia and its history has been intimately mixed to that of the fortress.
In 1427 despot Djuradj Brankovic thrown out of Belgrade by Hungarians and threatened by Turks from the South decided to establish here the capital of Serbia.
To defend the capital, the Serbian despot had erected 1429-1430 one of the largest fortresses in the Balkans.
But, by taking the fortress by Sultan Mehmed 1459, not only had the town lost of its importance, but this tragedy signified the end of the Serbian medieval State.
The Austrians had conquered it three times in the XVIII century, but had been compelled to cede it to Turks.
The Serbian rebels under Karadjordje Petrovic conquered it on November 8th 1808, and Smederevo became the centre of the First Serbian Insurrection in 1867 Turks had definitively left the town.
Smederevo fortress suffered severe damage to its towers and walls during the World War II after explosion on June 5th 1941 in the German ammunition depot having 3500 dead.
In 1944 the American bombing had destroyed a part of the town.

The fortress construction design has been of a triangle having the sides of 400 and 500 meters. The East and the West sides have been protected by the Danube and the Jezava. But one should imagine the South trench doubled by an artificial trench from end to end.
The barrage and two square towers in the South and in the East, and the cylindrical towers in the West.
In the trench of the fortified place a great plateau contained the garrison.
To the right you can reach the core royal parts - in this reduced North-East angle of the fortress one may notice the donjon, and climb with difficulty up the stairs on the guard had to pass. This place had been the residence of Djuradj Brankovic in XV century with reception hall with a secret door allowing the communication with the outside.

CHURCH SAINT GEORGE - On the central square, surrounded by pedestrian streets, very animated in summer time, there has been erected the church Saint George with its two belfries. It was built in the very center of the new town in 1854. On a brilliant baroque style visible by the utilisation of bronze for the roof and the yellow colour for the façade, St. George is another emblematic monument of the town.
THE CHURCH OF SAINT VIRGIN (THE CHURCH OF ASSUMPTION) - At the cemetery of Smederevo, a little church of an ancient monastery founded in the XV century may still be seen. By its design with three connected apsides and made of the brick and the stone, this church has been attached to the School of Morava. On the inside a few wall paintings from XVII century representing the cycle of the Christ’s’ life and the David’s psalms.
THE DISTRICT GOVERNMENT BUILDING, now the District Court, was built in 1886-88.
THE ROYAL RESIDENCE OF OBRENOVIC - few kilometres downstream on the Danube bank is “Zlatni Breg”, the summer residence of dynasty of Obrenovic. Constructed by Milos Obrenovic in the middle of XIX century. Of the neo-classical style, Zlatni Breg has been constituted of two square wings and one very academic passage. The gate of the prince and the dominating white colour are giving it a certain majesty. The residence has been surrounded by a vineyard of 30 hectares installed and maintained by Milan, the son of Milos Obrenovic. Around the castle the cycling pathway has been offering a nice view of the Danube.

An iron melting complex of Sartid was bought by the American giant of US Steel (2001), while the port installations had been sold to an Austrian company.
( * * * )
Na 1116. kilometru toka Dunava nalazi se Smederevo, srednjovekovna prestonica Srbije, grad istorije, grožđa i poznatog vina smederevka.
Smederevo se nalazi na južnom obodu Panonskog basena, 46 km od Beograda. Sa severa je oivičeno Dunavom, a sa istoka Velikom Moravom.
Autoput E 75 prolazi u dužini od 30 km kroz opštinu.
Naselje na mestu današnjeg Smedereva prvi put se pominje u povelji vizantijskog cara Vasilija 1019. godine.
U našim izvorima pod svojim imenom prvi put se pominje 1381. u Ravaničkoj povelji.
Smederevska tvrđava građena je u 15. veku, za vreme despota Đurđa Brankovića kao srpska prestonica, na površini od 10,5 hektara, oblika nepravilnog trougla sa 25 kula.
Sve muke i nevolje oko gradnje Smederevske tvrđave, a posebno veliki kuluci, pripisivani su despotovoj ženi Jerini. Narod je, misleći da se tvrđava gradi po njenoj želji, nju nazvao prokletom Jerinom.
U Smederevu je Vila Zlatni breg iz 1831. godine, letnjikovac Miloša Obrenovića osnivača kraljevske dinastije Obrenović, koji je tu zasadio 36 hektara vinograda.
Istorijske znamenitosti:
(*) Rimski bunar
(*) ostaci rimskog utvrdjenja Kulič
(*) crkvu Svetog Djordja (1849-1854.)
(*) Karadjordjev dud, pod kojim su Turci 1805. godine predali ključeve grada Karadjordju.
Jugovo se nalazi 4 km uzvodno od Smedereva i predstavlja izletnički kompleks.
Izletišta u okolini Smedereva:
(*) Lunjevačka šuma
(*) Šalinački lug, jedinstven hrastov lug posebno interesantan za botaničare i ekologe
(*) Drugovačko i Šalinačko jezero
The National Library of Smederevo is located in the left wing of The Cultural Center of Smederevo, which was designed especially for librarian activities.
It takes 1,945m2 of space.
The Library holdings total around 220,000 volumes of printed materials.
Five reading rooms with 146 seats are waiting for visitors every day except Sunday.
Average number of registered members is 10,000 per year, and 600-800 people use Library services every day.
In 1994 The National Library of Smederevo was appointed as home library for 74 local libraries of The Danube District.
Stari naziv za Smederevo je Semendrija, i znaci "krajnja vrata" zbog geografskog polozaja grada. Prvi pomen Semendrije je zabelezen u III veku p.n.e. U vreme Rimske imperije postojala su dva naselja zapadno od grada Vincea (Cirilovac) i Mons Aureus (Zlatno brdo). Naiziv Smederevo prvi put se pominje u Ravanickoj povelji 1381. Za vreme cara Proba Smederevski kraj je postao centar za gajenje vinove loze.
Smederevski grad je bio jedan od najvecih srednjevekovnih tvrdjava u Evropi. Podigao ga je Despot Djuradj Brankovic, poslednji znacajniji vladar na srpskom prestolu, i po njegovoj odluci postaje prestonica srednjevekovne Srbije. Posle smrti Stefana Lazarevica, despot nije mogao ostati u Beogradu, pa je sagradio novu prestonicu - Smederevo. Despot Djuradj Brankovic kao poslednju odbranu, sazidao je tvrdjavu, na uscu Jezave u Dunav. Jezgro tvrdjave je tzv. Mali grad (sazidan u periodu od 1428 do 1430 u obliku nepravilnog trougla). Uvidevsi da je grad pretesan da zastiti dvor despot je za desetak godina uspeo da sazida i Veliki grad, zadrzavsi oblik nepravilnog trougla. Mali grad je imao 6 kula, a veliki jos 19 kula. Opkoljen Dunavom, s jedne strane, Jezavom s druge, i sirokim vodenim rovom izgledao je neosvojiv.
Despot je pokusao cak i rodbinskim vezama da sacuva grad i granice svoje drzave od osvajanja. Devet godina po zidanju grada pocinju napadi Turaka na grad. Grad je odolevao sve do smrti despota 1459. godine kada ga Tuci osvajaju. Padom Smedereva prestaje da postoji srednjevekovna srpska drzava.
Novembra 1805. Karadjordje oslobadja Smederevo i Muhamed Gusa predaje kljuceve grada ispod stoletnog duda. Za vreme I svetskog rata Austijanci bombarduju grad nanoseci mu teska ostecenja. U II svetsom ratu grad je doziveo novo razaranje velikom eksplozijom municije 5. juna 1941. , a pred kraj rata engleski bombarderi dovrsavaju rusenje tvrdjave. Tako je Smederevski grad od najlepseg i najocuvanijeg srednjevekovnog grada ostao do danasnjih dana jedan od najruiniranijih gradova.

Utvrdjeni Gradovi

21 utvrdjeni grad u Srbiji.


Bugarski arheolozi pronašli su 2.400 godina staru zlatnu masku u tračkoj grobnici na jugoistoku te zemlje, prenele su svetske agencije.
Masku je proteklog vikenda pronašao arheološki tim koji je radio na iskopavanjima nedaleko od mesta Sliven.
Arheolozi veruju da je u grobnici sahranjen trački kralj.
Pored maske, u grobnici je pronađen zlatan prsten sa natpisom na grčkom jeziku i urezanom slikom bradatog muškarca, srebrna čaša u obliku roga, srebrne i bronzane posude, grnčarija i zagrobni pokloni.
Artefakti su pripadali tračkom vladaru sa kraja 4. veka pre nove ere koji je ovde sahranjen.
Tračani su bili na jednakom nivou razvoja kao antički Grci.
Taj narod živeo je u današnjoj Bugarskoj i delovima moderne Grčke, Rumunije, Makedonije i Turske između 4000. pre nove ere i 8. veka nove ere, kada su ih asimilovali slovenski zavojevači.
Desetine tračkih grobnica nalaze se u centralnom delu Bugarske, kojeg su arheolozi nazvali „bugarskom dolinom kraljeva”, po uzoru na Dolinu kraljeva kraj Luksora u Egiptu, u kojoj se nalaze grobnice egipatskih faraona.
Originalne statue ratnika zakopane su pre oko 2.200 godina da čuvaju grob Ćin Šihuanga, cara koji je stvorio prvu ujedinjenu kinesku državu osvojivši rivalska kraljevstva.
Ćin je uspostavio jedinstveno pismo, ujednačio mere, novac i zakonski sistem i sagradio široku mrežu puteva i kanala.
Posle smrti 210. godine pre nove ere, sahranjen je u mauzoleju veličine grada izvan Sijana. Grobnica je otkrivena 1974. kad su seljaci kopali bunar, i vremenom je postala jedna od najzanimljivijih turističkih destinacija u Kini.

T.a.t.u. - Yugoslaviya

Nad vechernim Dunaem raznositsya
Belyi tsvet, belyi tsvet, belyi tsvet.
I na pamyat' melodiya prositsya,
Proshlyh let, Proshlyh let, Proshlyh let...
No rasstayali ptich'imi stayami,
Nashei pesni prostye slova.
Ty uhodish' v ogon' Yugoslaviya!
Bez menya! Bez menya! Bez menya!
Za noch' pod svintsovym gradom,
Za to chto menya net ryadom,
Ty prosti sestra moya - Yugoslaviya!
Za smert' pod dozhdem vesennim,
Za to chto ne stal spaseniem!
Ty prosti sestra moya - Yugoslaviya!
Chernoglazoi devchonkoi rasteryannoi,
Ty stoish' na drugom beregu.
No dobrat'sya do etogo berega
Ne mogu, ne mogu, ne mogu.
Nad vechernim Dunaem raznositsya
Belyi tsvet, belyi tsvet, belyi tsvet.
I na pamyat' melodiya prositsya,
Proshlyh let, Proshlyh let, Proshlyh let...
Za noch' pod svintsovym gradom,
Za to chto menya net ryadom,
Ty prosti sestra moya - Yugoslaviya!
Za smert' pod dozhdem vesennim,
Za to chto ne stal spaseniem!
Ty prosti sestra moya - Yugoslaviya!
( * * * * * * * * * * * * * )
In the evening carried over the Danube
White flowers, white flowers, white flowers...
And my memory asks for a melody
From long ago, long ago, long ago...
But like a flock of lost birds,
Our song's simple words disperse...
You're heading into fire, Yugoslavia!
Without me! Without me! Without me!
For the downpour of lead during that night,
For the reason that I'm not by your side,
Forgive me my sister, Yugoslavia...
For the death during the spring rain
For that I never came to your rescue
Forgive me my sister, Yugoslavia...
Like a confused dark-eyed girl,
You stand on the other side.
But to reach over to that side
I cannot, I cannot, I cannot...
In the evening carried over the Danube
White flowers, white flowers, white flowers
And my memory asks for a melody
From long ago, long ago, long ago...
For that night during the downpour of lead
For that I wasn't there by your side,
Forgive me my sister, Yugoslavia...
For the death during the spring rain
For that I never came to your rescue
Forgive me my sister, Yugoslavia...

Karni Mata Temple

Karni Mata Temple, 30 miles south of Bikaner in the small village of Deshnoke is one of the strangest holy spots in India.
The entrance, featured, is lavishly decorated with beautifully sculptured marble paneling full of intricate patterns, and delicately worked doorways, colonnades, pavilions and balconies.
Thousands of rats dine with people and scamper over their feet - in India's small northwestern city of Deshnoke, this is a place of worship: Rajastan's famous Karni Mata Temple.
This isolated Hindu temple was constructed by Maharaja Ganga Singh in the early 1900s as a tribute to the rat goddess, Karni Mata.
The most intriguing aspect of the interior is about 20,000 rats that call this temple home. These holy animals are called kabbas.
The legend goes that Karni Mata, matriarch from the 14th century, was an incarnation of Durga, the goddess of power and victory. Goddess Durga is synonymous with Shakti, the cosmic power that wages an eternal war against the evil. Shri Karni-Mata once restored a dead child of her devotee back to life from Yama, the God of death, then Mata announced that no one from her tribe would fall into Yama's hands again. Instead, when they die all of them will temporarily inhabit the body of a rat (Kabba), before being reborn into the tribe.
The whole life of Shri Karni Mata was full of miracles and even after her disappearance from the earth, her innumerable devotees have experienced her merciful blessings. The word disappearance has been used, because it wasn’t a natural death of Shri Karni Mata, rather her human body disappeared in divine light at her desire.
In Hinduism, death marks the end of one chapter and the beginning of a new one on the path to a soul's eventual oneness with the universe. This cycle of transmigration is known as samsara and is precisely why Karni Mata's rats are treated like royalty.
In Hinduism, many deities take animals forms. The main theological point is that there's no dividing line between what forms gods or goddesses can use: they can take form as a fish, a bird, or even a rat.
Shri Karni Mata was born on Friday, Ashwin Shukla Saptami 1444 i.e. October 2, 1387 AD in village Suwap near Phalodi in Jodhpur District, Rajasthan. She belonged to Charan caste. Her father was Mehaji and Deval Bai was her mother.At the time of birth Karni Mata was named “Ridhu Bai”. She was the sixth child of her parents. All the five children born before her were females. A night before her delivery, Deval Bai (Ridhu Bai’s mother), dreamt that a Goddess appears and blesses her with the words that the Goddess will be born to Deval Bai, as an incarnation of Goddess Durga. Deval Bai told her dream to everyone, but all the members of her family took it lightly. After the birth of Ridhu Bai, her aunt (sister of her father) being much disappointed, patted the head of Ridhu Bai with her hand and then with a fist said, “Again a stone has come”. To the astonishment of everyone, her fingers momentarily got stuck to each other. Later on, after few years her aunt came to see her from her-in-laws’ house. One day her aunt was combing Ridhu Bai’s hair with one hand. Ridhu Bai asked her the reason for not using the other hand. Her aunt told her the story of how her hand got defected. Ridhu Bai took her defective hand in her own hand and said “Where is the defect, it is all right”, and surprisingly, her hand got cured in a moment. Influenced by this miracle and recalling the past dream of Deval Bai, her aunt there and then renamed Ridhu Bai, “KARNI” (Meaning- She will do something miraculous on the earth). When Karniji was six years old a snake bit her father in the jungle. She put her hands on the effected limb and removed the poison. . Meantime, the stories of the miracles of Karniji had begun to spread far and wide. Rao Sekha of Pugal also heard about her. He wanted to take revenge on his enemy. So he went to Karniji to seek her blessings for victory. Rao Sekha met Karniji on the way while she was taking meal for her father towards the field. He begged for her blessings. Karniji welcomed him and asked him to visit her house. Sekhaji begged her pardon, due to paucity of time at his disposal and desired to leave, but Karniji would not let the guest go without having the meal. She offered him food, which she was taking for her father. Sekhaji knew that the food was not enough to be served to his army accompanying him. He therefore asked his men, to accept whatever she served and not to ask for more. Abiding by his orders, they forwarded their utensils to be served and Karniji served the breads and the curd from her pot one by one to every soldier. When she went from one soldier to other, her pot never emptied of curd and breads. Seeing this miracle all the soldiers were amazed. Rao Sekha achieved victory over his enemy and none of his soldiers died, except one, who did not eat the breads and curd treating it as a bad omen. By this time Karniji became over aged & her parents became anxious for her marriage. Seeing her parents anxious & worried, Karniji herself suggested her father to go to village Sathika and talk on her marriage with Depaji, son of Rao Kelu- a great Philosopher of that area during that time. According to history, the marriage took place in 1416 AD, in a quite simple manner. The groom Depaji went to Karniji’s doli (palanquin) and raised its curtains to thank her. He was amazed to see that, inside was a Goddess sitting beside a lion. After a few seconds Karniji transformed herself into human body. She told her husband to marry her sister Gulab Bai, mentioning that she was born on the earth only to serve people. . On the way to Sathika there was a village named Kaluja. The villagers already aware of her miracles requested her to solve their water problem. She blessed and told them to put her idol made of clay in the well and abstain from cutting trees. Soon the well was found to be full of water and still exists. Today this well is known as “Shri Karnisagar”.
Karniji lived at her-in-laws’ village for two years only. In 1418 AD, she left “Sathika” due to unnecessary disputes with the villagers. Being unhappy, she left for another place with all the members of her family and herd of cows. She decided to camp only at the place where she would reach at sunset. In the midst of journey, Karniji reached village Jangloo. There was only one well in the village and cows of Karniji were thirsty. The servants of Rao Kanha, ruler of Jangloo forbade her to draw water from the well because of its scarcity. Karniji did not care of their opposition and told Rao Ridmal of Chandasar, who was accompanying her, to draw water with the help of his horses. To the amazement of all the people, sufficient water was drawn to meet the requirements. Karniji there and then declared Rao Ridmal ruler of that area. She then resumed her journey and by the time of sunset she reached near the jungle of Deshnoke. Now again an issue of dispute arose between Karniji and the servants of Rao Kanha as the area fell under him. Karniji once again, did not care of his servants’ opposition. The servants complained to Rao Kanha. He asked two of his officers to get the jungle vacated. Karniji tried her best to pacify the officers, but the officers during their conversation with her, went beyond the limits of courtesy and insulted her. Being offended by their insulting behaviour she cursed them that their mouths will be like that of a jackal. Immediately their faces turned into that of a jackal. They returned to Rao and after listening to the story narrated by his men, he thought Karniji to be a wizard. He himself along with his army went to her, abused her and asked her to vacate the jungle immediately. Karniji, peacefully told him that, “I have come here with the blessings of Goddess Awad Mata. The image of Goddess is lying in that wooden box, if you put the box in my chariot, I will go away from here at once”. All the men of Rao tried to lift the box individually as well as collectively but couldn’t succeed. At last Rao Kanha himself tried to do so with the help of elephants but failed. During the attempts to lift the box one of the stands of the box broke. Karniji immediately remarked that, Rao Kanha had completed his life span. Rao Kanha being prejudiced, as she had declared Rao Ridmal, the ruler of that area, thought her to be a wizard. He asked her to foretell his death. Karniji drew a line on the ground at a certain distance and told him that, as soon as he oversteps and crosses the line he will die. Indeed the Rao died no sooner than he crossed the line. This Box of Karni Mata containing the idol of Goddess Awad Mata (whom Karniji worshiped during her lifetime) is presently situated in Temre Rai Temple in the middle of Deshnoke city. Karniji made her permanent residence in the jungle near Deshnoke, at a place which is now known as “Nehriji”. When she began to reside at Nehriji, she marked certain areas around that place upto two kilometres in radius. She then planted bushes of red berries all around. These green bushes on one hand served as fodder for the cattle and on the other presented fine natural scenery.
In order to churn the curd a supporting stick was required to be tied-up with the iron ring. A rope was required to rotate the apparatus called “Zerna” which is a long stick of wood, having three to four prongs at its lower end, to churn the curd. This stick is called “Nedi”. For this purpose, Karniji planted the stem of a tree to churn the curd. This Nedi stick in the long run became the tree of Khejri since drops of curd fell on the stick in the course of churning. This Khejri tree, which is presently inside the Nehriji Temple surprisingly, contains the marks of curd visible on its bark
While residing at Nehriji, one day while she was milking her cows, she saved the ship of Jagdooshaha, her devotee by spreading one of her arms. Amazingly, her arm got wet with seawater, which in order to dry, she put under the layer of soil. At present, as a result of her then taken action, the first layer of Deshnoke soil contains saline water like seawater. Besides this she blessed her devotees with many miraculous deeds.
In 1443 AD her father-in law Keluji died. Thereafter she went to Deshnoke where her husband Depaji died in 1454 AD. In Deshnoke she built a hut shaped cave by putting stones on one another, without using lime or sand. Its roof was made of Zal tree wood. She used the cave for meditation. Most of her time was spent in it. In 1463 AD one of her stepsons named Laxmanraj went to Kolayat fair where he drowned in a lake and died. His dead body was brought to Deshnoke. His mother Gulab Bai prayed to Karniji to grant his life. Karniji ordered to keep the body inside the cave. She closed its entrance for everyone and remained there for three days. On the fourth day Laxmanraj himself came out of the cave. Since then, the rats, known as “Kabas” started to be born in the Deshnoke temple. There is a saying as per poems composed by poets from time to time, that when Karniji brought Laxmanraj from Yama’s abode, she forbade Yama’s role in generation of her Depawat (falls under Charan Caste) and made her own law that any Depawat after death will be born as Kaba and Kaba would rebirth as Depawat. That is why the Kabas in Deshnoke temple are fully protected and cherished like her sons.

Inside teh Temple, where shoes are not permitted, tourists and worshippers alike hope to have rats run across their feet for good luck.
Eating food or drinking water that previously has been sampled by a rat is considered to be a supreme blessing. But there is one rare blessing that draws the most attention: the sighting of a white rat.
Out of all of the thousands of rats in the temple, there are said to be four or five white rats, which are considered to be especially holy. They are believed be the manifestations of Karni Mata herself and her kin. Sighting them is a special charm, and visitors put in extensive efforts to bring them forth, offering prasad - candylike food.
In this temple the rat residents are treated with sincere devotion.
For an animal that is commonly associated with pestilence and disease, it may seem strange, but during the century of this temple's existence, there has never been an outbreak of plague or other ratborne illness among the humans who have visited—which may be a miracle in itself.
When the killer disease plague spread out in Surat (Gudjarat) in mid 90's, people from Surat and other affected areas went to the temple to take the milk and water drunk drunk by these rats as medicine to get themselves cured.
Amazing about these Kabba's is that, despite being innumerable in number, they never come out of the Temple's boundaries. Miraculous fact is that no disease related to rats have been found till date, neither the temple stings of foul smells, nor it's dirty.
Offerings like milk, sweets, cereals, water and nuts are first offered to those holy kabbas, and then distributed among the devotees, and consumed by them as a holy prasad. Especially the water which these kabbas drink is considered holy.
There has been no trace of how these kabbas are reproduced - there has never been a trace of baby rats - all the kabbas are of a standard size and weight withou any significant change down the ages.
This miraculous Temple is looked after by a special caste called "Charan".
The Charans are the real heirs of Shri Karni-Mata since last 500 years. Sri Karni-Mata was married to Depaji in the year 1401. (per English calendar). Her mother's name was Dewal Bai and father's name was Meha Ji. She was born in a very ordinary family. Since she was the reincarnation of Durga, Shri Karnima advised her husband to marry Gulab Bai, her younger sister, to give him a heir. Depaji and Gulab Bai had 4 sons named: Naga, Puna, Shitha and Lakhan.
The first foundation stone of Jodhpur Fort in 1515. (per Hindi calendar) was kept by Sri Karni Mata herself.
Shri Karni museum is located opposite to the Temple - big hall 52x36 ft.
In 5th century Shree Karni Mata was the one who forced the King to stop the "NAVROJA" (The exploitation of women by the Mughal Emperors)In Hindu mythology the rat is considered the vehicle of Lord Ganesh, son of Durga.
The power of the Karni Mata can't be described by anyone in the whole universe, it can be experienced only by one oneself.

Monday, September 24, 2007


Sony Ericsson W580i Walkman Carbon Grey

Streaming Stereo Bluetooth Wireless Technology
Shake Control (Shake The Phone To Change Songs)
Track ID (Record Music To Identify The Artist)
One Of The Longest-life Extended Batteries We've Ever Seen
2.0 Megapixel Camera (1600 x 1200 Pixel Resolution Max)
Streaming Multimedia Support
On-demand Axcess TV, Radio and Web With Axcess Web Add-on Plan Feature
MP3 Player - MP3/AAC Player
USB Storage
FM Radio - 8 Preset Stations
RDS Message Compliant-Requires Stereo Headset As Antenna
Two-handed Gaming Experience, 3D Gaming Experience
Multiplayer Action With Bluetooth
Bluetooth Wireless Tech- v2.0, Headset, Handsfree and DUN, OPP, FTP, HID, BIP, PAN, Sync Profiles
Video Capture - Camcorder-Max Length Determined Only By Available Phone Memory, H.263 and MPEG4 Files Supported
Bluetooth Stereo Headset (A2DP)
Voice-driven Menus
Train The Phone To Dial Up to 30 Numbers With Your Voice
Data Capable-Use This Phone As A Modem With Software Sold Separately
PC Synchronization With Software Sold Separetely
Mobile Web Browsing With Image Support, With Any MEdia Value Bundle Add-on Rate Plan
Instant Messenger Built-in
Multimedia Messaging - Share Videos, Audio, Pictures and Text
Text Messaging (SMS) Plus Pre-created Message Templates
Email Client - POP3, IMAP, SMTP Support
Polyphonic Ringtones - 40 Chords, Downloadable
Custom Ringtones, Pre-loaded Ringtones
MP3 Ringtones Plus AAC Real Music Ringtones Support, Downloadable
Ringer Profiles
Customizable Faceplates
Picture Caller ID
Customizable Graphics - Downloadable
Color Main Display - 240 x 320 Pixels, Over 262,000 Colors Displayed
Color - Urban Gray
Style - Slider
Speakerphone - Stereo Speakers, MegaBass, Wide Angle Sound
To-Do List
Voice Memo Limited Only By Phone Memory
Standard 2.5mm Headset Jack With Included 2.5mm Headset Adapter, Stereo Support
Phonebook Capacity - Up to 1,000 Contacts
Multiple Numbers Per Name - Up to 9 Entries Per Contact Including E-mail and Web
TTY Compatible
Battery Type - Li Ion
Talk Time - Up to 540 Minutes
Standby Time - Up to 370 Hours
Application Platform - Java MIDP 2.0
Data Download Speed - EDGE (Up to 144 Kbps)
Network Compatibility - GSM 800, 850, 1800, 1900
Compatible Carrier - AT&T
Ringtone Types Supported - MP3, MIDI, AAC, CMX
Internationally Compatible
Predictive Text Entry - Yes, T9
Built-In Memory - 12MB
Expandable Memory Capacity - Yes, Memory Stick Micro (M2) Format Compatible
Dimensions - 3.9 in x 1.8 in x 0.5 in
Weight - 3.3 oz


Serbs (blue) in Yugoslavia according to the 1981 census data.
(-) First appearance of serbian name is in Rig Veda - ancient religious sanskrit text (3000-1500 b.c.) in book VIII., 32., 2.:
"Strong God, he slew Anarsani, Srbinda, Pipru, and the friend, Ahisuva, and loosed the floods." From all the European peoples the Serbs are the only race from the construction of the wording of their name, according to the Austrian sanskritologist Walter Wust who are composed in the Vedic hymns as the characteristic SRBINDA, in which almost letter to letter is identical to the modern form SRBENDA used by Balkan Serbs.
In the Vedic manuscripts, Wust interprets, SRBINDA as its own original to say patented name with a predetermined meaning. Which is in complete harmony to thinking of today’s SRBENDA expression in Serbs, because Srbenda is always the best, the most respected, most brave, the greatest for respecting tradition: in short a man who is used and shown as an example to others. Srbin(da) in the Serbian language means Serb. Srbinda in Rig Veda represents mythological being or more likely the Prince of Serbs.
(-) Some believe that the name is of Sarmatian/Iranian origin. From which particular word it derives is unclear. However, one theory suggests it derives from the word "Sarv" which means "cypress" tree.
(-) others argue that all Slavs originally called themselves Serbs, and that Serbs (and Sorbs) are simply the last Slavs who retained the name.
(-) some believe that the name comes from srkati, meaning "to suck in", referring to people so closely united as if they share mother's milk.
Ethnic location:
South-East Europe - central and western part of the Balkan Peninsula
Religion: Eastern Orthodox Christians
The eventful Serbian history, full of wars, occupations and migrations that ensued from them, influenced strongly the location and migrations of Serbs.
They live in the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, in the Serbian Republic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until the exodus of August 1995, they also lived in the Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia.
The population consists of
16,282,000 people,
8,500,000 living in the above-mentioned ethnic locations,
1,782,000 in the republics of former Yugoslavia,
60,000 in neighboring countries,
882,000 in other European countries,
720,000 in North America,
and about 170,000 in other parts of the world.
Abroad, Vienna is said to be home to the largest Serb population followed by Chicago with Toronto and Southern Ontario coming in third. Los Angeles is known to have a sizable Serbian community, but so does Istanbul and Paris. The number of Serbs in the diaspora is unknown but is estimated to be between 1 and 2 million on one side, and up to 4 million according to Ministry for Diaspora Republic of Serbia.
The maximum number of Serbs thus ranges anywhere from around 9.5 to 16 million, depending on the estimation used for the diaspora.
Smaller numbers of Serbs live in New Zealand, and Serbian communities in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Braziland, Chile) are reported to grow and exist to this day.
Serbs speak Serbian language.
Old Slavs had a special kind of literacy, but when they reached the Balkan Peninsula, they developed (under the influence of Christianity and the Greek alphabet) a particular Slavonic literacy (from 863) with a special alphabet (glagoljica).
From the 10th century it was perfected and became known as Cirilica (cyrillic alphabet).
First documents written in Old Slavonic date from the 9th and 10th centuries, and those in Serbian language from the 11th century (Temniski zbornik - The Book of Temnic).
Following the linguistic and spelling reforms by Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic (1787 - 1864), based on the rule "write as you speak", and "one sound one letter", the folk language became Serbian literary language, with phonetic orthography.
Thus, Serbs have the simplest orthography and the most perfect alphabet in the world.
Serbian language is a very developed language (more than 800,000 words) with rich and detailed grammar (nine kinds of words, seven cases, three genders of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and precise expressions for active and passive states or the times of action). Depending on the pronunciation of the Old Slavonic sound "yat" Serbian language has three dialects:
ekavski (child = dete),
ijekavski (child = dijete),
ikavski (child = dite).
Serbian names indicate some basic qualities of the person, i.e. Stojan (postojanost - steadiness), Ratko (warrior qualities), Miroljub (peace-loving), etc. They also derive from trees, flowers, or animals, especially female names, e.g.: Borko (m.) or Borka (f.) (bor = pine), Golub (pigeon), Cveta (flower). Many names derive from Christian tradition, e.g.: David, Nikola, Petar, Pavle.
Most Serbian surnames have the surname suffix -ić (Cyrillic: -ић). This is often transcribed as -ic. In history, Serbian names have often been transcribed with a phonetic ending, -ich or -itch.
The -ić suffix is a Slavic diminutive, originally functioning to create patronymics. Thus the surname Petrić signifies little Petar, as does, for example, a common prefix Mac ("son of") in Scottish and O' in Irish names.
It is estimated that some two thirds of all Serbian surnames end in -ić.
Other common surname suffixes are -ov or -in which is the Slavic possessive case suffix, thus Nikola's son becomes Nikolin, Petar's son Petrov, and Jovan's son Jovanov. Those are more typical for Serbs from Vojvodina.
The two suffixes are often combined.
Serbian language has very precise terms for defining family relationships, both on father's and mother's side, and marriages are not allowed down to the cousins seven times removed.
Every family relationship has a particular term to denote it, and some have even more terms. To name only some of them: otac (father), majka (mother), sin (son) cerka(daughter), unuk (grandson), unuka (granddaughter), deda (grandfather), baba (grandmother), brat (brother), sestra (sister), stric (uncle - father's brother), ujak (uncle - mother's brother), svastika (wife's sister), zaova (husband's sister), surak (wife's brother), dever (husband's brother).
Non-Serbs who studied the Serbian language include such prominent individuals as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, J. R. R. Tolkien, Lamartine, Jacob Grimm.
Serbs belong to the Southslavonic group of Indo-European peoples.
By genetics, Serbs have the following Y-Dna chromosome distribution:
the highest is Haplogroup I1b (Y-DNA) with 29% occurrence,
then Haplogroup E3b (Y-DNA) or E3b1 haplogroup 20%,
R1a haplogroup with around 16% of tested individuals,
R1b haplogroup at 11%.
Somewhat smaller samples have haplogroups J2 8%, K 7% and I1a 7% Haplogroup I1a (Y-DNA).
There are several theories on the origin of the Serbs.
(I) Byzantine sources report that part of the Serbs migrated southward in the late sixth century and eventually overwhelmed the lands that now make up southern Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Dalmatia. In this region, Serbs mixed with other Slavic tribes (which settled there in the sixth century) and with descendants of the indigenous peoples of the Balkans: Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians and Celts.
(II) Theory suggests that Serbs are descendants of a tribe known as the Lugii. These Lugii lived in central Europe, around the same area that the present-day Lusatian Sorbs of Germany live in.
(III) Per Iranian theory, the original Serboi were a Sarmatian (Iranian) tribe, who lived in the northern Caucasus and Eastern Europe.

Serbian ancestors, Protoslavs and Old Serbs, were described in the 5th century BC by Herodotus, under the names of Neuri and Budini, living north of the Danube in the region between Dniepar and north-eastern Carpathian Mountains.
The first mention of the name "Serbs" appears in the 1st century BC (69- 75), in the Historia naturalis by Plinius Caecilius Secundus, who states that Serbs (Serbi) live on the coast of the Black Sea.
In the 2nd century, Claudius Ptolomaius writes in his Geographica that Serbs (Serboi, Sirboi - Serboi, Sirboi) live behind the Caucasus, near the hinterland of the Black Sea.
The first mention of the Serbian name on their present ethnical location appears in 822, in the work of Frank chronicler Einhardt (Annales regni Francorum). He confirms that Serbs are very numerous in Dalmatia.
During the great migrations in Europe (5th to 6th century), Serbian ancestors arrive to the Balkan Peninsula from several directions and settle in the wide area between four seas (Black, Adriatic, Aegean, and Ionian).
It is on this location that the eldest Serbian feudal states Raska (later Serbia) and Duklja (later Zeta or Montenegro) were formed.
From the second half of the 12th century Raska expanded by taking over the Byzantine territory.
The medieval Serbian state reached the height of power under the rule of Nemanjic dynasty (1166-1371).
From 1217 Serbia was a kingdom, and from 1346 an empire.
The Serbian Orthodox Church acquired independence in 1219, thanks to its first Archbishop St. Sava Nemanjic (1175-1235), a man of wide education, who inspired the revival of Serbian literature, education, law and medicine.
The medieval Serbian state was most powerful during the reign of Emperor Dusan Nemanjic, who consolidated the legal system of the empire by his Law issued in 1349 (with additions of 1354).
Medieval Serbian art, architecture, and fresco painting have been included into the World Cultural Heritage, sponsored by UNESCO (monasteries Sopocani, Mileseva, Studenica).
An invasion by the Turks at the end of the 14th century cut short the development of Serbian countries, and they fell under Turkish occupation after the battles of Marica (1371) and Kosovo (1389). The occupation was completed by the end of the 15th century and it lasted for several centuries. The Turkish occupation was one of the most tragic periods in the Serbian history. Serbian population was heavily taxed (harach) to support the Turkish imperial machinery. But even more tragic was the blood tax (danak u krvi) when pre teenage boys were separated by force from their parents to be raised as Turkish soldiers (janicari), and pretty young Serbian girls were taken to harems.
Serbian Orthodox churches and frescoes were destroyed and mutilated. Rebellions were harshly punished - men were buried alive or impaled on posts.
Near the town of Nis, stands today a tragic reminder of the brutality - skulls of Serbian people built into a tower (Cele Kula).
Earthly remains of St.Sava, the most worshipped Serbian Saint, were publicly burned by the Turkish soldiers on the hill of Vracar in Belgrade. On this sacred ground stands today the Saint Sava Serbian Orthodox Cathedral.
The Turkish occupation forced many migrations of the Serbs to the west (up the White Craina in Slovenia) and the north (up to Budapest).
The greatest of the migrations happened in 1690, when Serbs, led by Patriarch Carnojevic escaped to Pannonia (Austrian Empire).
The revival of the Serbian state started with the First Serbian Rebellion against the Turks (1804-1813), led by Karadjordje Petrovic. It was also the first instance of the break up of a feudal order after the French Revolution (1789).
From 1815, Serbia was a principality, and from 1882 a kingdom ruled by the Obrenovic dynasty.
During the Karadjordjevic dynasty (1903-1945), Serbia liberated the territories of Old Serbia, Kosovo, and South Serbia from the Turks (in 1912).
In 1908 the Austro-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia, mainly populated by Serbs. After the assassination of the Arch-Duke Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, the Empire declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia. The Allies (France, England, Russia and USA) sided with the Serbs.

The London Declaration of the Allies of 1915 recognized that the traditional Serbian lands of Vojvodina, Lika, Dalmatia, Slavonija, Baranja, Bosnia and Herzegovina, occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, join the Kingdom of Serbia.
In 1918, the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, with the territories of Slovenia and Croatia, formed a new state - The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which in 1929 was renamed The Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This multiethnic, multireligious state was headed by King Aleksandar Karadjordjevic, the Liberator.
King Aleksandar was assassinated in 1934 in Marseilles, France, and became the first victim of the growing Fascism in Europe.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was attacked in April 1941 by the Fascist Forces of the Axes with Hungary and Bulgaria. The territory of Yugoslavia was occupied by these Forces, and the Independent State of Croatia was created, which declared war on the USA in December 1941.
Serbia under occupation provided home and shelter to thousands of deported Slovenes.
From 1941 to 1945, a systematic persecution and genocide was committed against the Serbian people in both Serbia proper, Croatia and Bosnia. About 1,000.000 Serbs perished. The most brutal were Croatian Fascists, Ustashi. " We shall kill one part of the Serbs, we shall transport another, and the rest will be forced to convert, " so said Dr. Mile Budak Minister of Education and Creeds in Craoatia on July 22,1941. In the concentration camp of Jasenovac, the most heinous crimes recorded in history were committed on more than 700,000 men women and children. ( When in 1984 the Serbian Patriarch German consecrated the memorial church in Jasenovac, he said "Forgive we must, forget we cannot.")It was customary for Ustashi to torture Serbian people, tie them in bundles and throw into pits. Examples of such crimes are numerous. In the village of Prebilovci, near Medjugorje in Hercegovina, 870 people were massacred. Nearly 50 years later their remains were exhumed and laid to rest in a newly built memorial church. Both the church and the remains were dynamited after the secession of Bosnia in 1992.
In October 1941, the Nazi Germans executed over 7000 Serbs in the city of Kragujevac, including classes of high school students during the school session.
In Vojvodina, Hungarian Fascists killed by drowning in ice covered rivers of the Danube and Tisa thousands of Serbian men, women and children.
In 1941, General Draza Mihajlovic and his followers, Chetniks, organized the first armed resistance in the Nazi occupied Europe. As a Royalist, he opposed the Communist Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito. During the Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, General Draza Mihajlovic and his Chetnics saved over 500 downed allied pilots mainly from the United States.
In recognition, General Mihajlovic was awarded posthumously The Legion of Merit by President Harry S. Truman (March 1948). General Mihajlovic was captured by Tito's Communists and executed in 1946.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was abolished by the Communist Decree in 1945.
Yugoslavia was one of the founders of the United Nations.
The parliamentary life in Serbia has a very long tradition. In the Nemanjic times, in medieval Serbia, there were Councils of Lords. One characteristic of Serbian social system is a developed local government - local councils and country meetings were instances where all decisions were made during several centuries. Serbs retained this kind of local administration even under the Turkish occupation. In the newly established Serbian state (from 1804) national conventions were held regularly, and the first, very democratic Constitution was introduced in 1835. At the beginning of the 20th century (1903-1915) Serbia had a highly developed parliamentary system, according to European standards.
From 1945 Serbia was under the communist one-party rule.
The parliamentary system with several political parties was reintroduced in 1990.
In 1992 the Security Council of the United Nations imposed the most draconian economic sanctions on the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro, which today constitute the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
There are three main myths in the Serbian tradition:
1) The most important among them is the Kosovo legend, which grew around the terrible defeat suffered by the Serbian army, annihilated by Turks at the battle of Kosovo in 1389. Events connected with that historical tragedy acquired mythical proportions in the folk tradition and folk poetry, and took on many details and meanings derived from the Christian tradition. Thus Prince Lazar and his knights became identified with Christ and the martyrs, the Prince's son-in-law Vuk Brankovic with Judas, and Milos Obilic, who slew Turkish sultan Murat, with saintly warriors.
2)Prince Rastko Nemanjic (1174 - 1235) became monk Sava, and in time was elected the first Archbishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Different traditions and legends grew around his character - with the passage of time - he is supposed to have thought the Serbs to till the land, to build watermills, to keep flock. He was able to open springs in dry rocks by his wand, he fought the devil, he mastered the wolves, he created dogs to keep the flocks, etc. He is also celebrated as a national saint.
3) Prince Marko (around 1335 - 1395) also became a folk hero, the most popular character in the folk poetry of all the Slavonic peoples in the Balkans (Serbs, Bulgarians, Macedonians). Many traditions joined in the building up of this mythical hero - the old Greek stories of Heracles, historical facts (Marko was heir to the Serbian medieval empire), traditions of chivalry, and the idea of a folk hero. He was strong, just, brave, he had a winged horse, and he wielded a club with which he fought both mortals and supernatural beings.
In the early Middle Ages Serbs accepted Christianity, and according to 1991 . census, 95% of population belong to Eastern Orthodox Christians. The old Slavonic pagan religion that Serbs had brought from their former habitations survived for a long time along with Christianity. The cult of the ancestors and the belief in the life after death, survived in the Memorial Feasts at the Graveyards (zadusnice), days when people visit the graves, light candles for the souls of the dead, and offer food and drink. There are four main zadusnice feasts, always on Saturdays, usually on a second Saturday before the beginning of the Lents (Easter Lent or Christmas Lent), the Saturday before the Holy Trinity Day, before Saint Kiriak's Day (12th October), and Saint Demetrius Day (8th November).
Major holidays
Serbs honor the Christian religious feasts very much:
Christmas Day (Bozic)
Visitation of the Virgin,
Palm Sunday,
Eastern Sunday (Uskrs)
Ascension Day,
Holy Trinity Day,
Christmas Eve (6th January) On the morning of that day a dry oak branch and hay are brought into the house as symbols of fertility and family prosperity in the next year, and a meal of non-animal Lent foods is partaken by the family (a Christmas Eve cake, baked beans and walnuts).
Saint Sava (27th January), main national saint is deeply honored by Serbs and celebrated by schools (patron saint of education), and families.
Saint Vitus' Day (28th June) is a great national feast, in which the memories of the old Slavonic God Vitus joined with the memory of the terrible defeat of the Serbs in the Kosovo Field in 1389.
Other popular saints' days are:
St. George's Day (6th May),
St. Demetrius' Day (8th November),
St. Eliah's Day (2nd August).
There are three special kinds of religious feasts among Serbs:
slava - the patron saint of the family,
zavetine or litije - the village patron saint's day procession,
zanatlijske slave - patron saints' days of different guilds.
It is believed that people who celebrate the same slava are brothers and have a same ancestor. There are about 150 patron saints.
The Serbian Orthodox Church uses the Julian calendar, so Christmas currently falls on January 7 of the Gregorian calendar.
Obligatory slava objects are:
the icon of the saint,
a tall candle
a spring of dried basil.
There are also ritual dishes:
slavsko zito (boiled and kneaded wheat grains)
slavski kolac (slava loaf, an especially adorned ritual bread), blessed by priest before the main meal.
Slava is accompanied by toasts that are gems of folk oratory, and by singing.
Serbs take birth, marriage, and death to be the main turning points in human life. Up to the recent times they believed that birth and death were passing from one world into a parallel one, and back. Death in one of them means birth into another and vice versa. Both worlds rejoice in those who arrive and mourn for those who go away. Both consider the Earth to be their original ancestress. The act of burial was the act of birth in reversal. The child of earth, the dead, is brought to the graveyard, a holy location fenced off as earth's womb. The earth's child is laid down into earthen womb from which it originally came. Ritual customs surrounding a mother and her baby during the first 40 days after birth are parallel to those appropriate for the 40 days after death.
Serbs are open, direct, and warmhearted people, cautious and reserved to strangers at first, but very friendly, curious and helpful, once they get to know them.
One often-quoted feature of Serbian character is INAT, approximately meaning "spite"—the refusal to take an action which is being forced upon (regardless of reason thereof), and even wilful acting to the contrary, even to one's own harm. While it often has negative connotations, many Serbian successes, especially in sports and in difficult times of warfare, are also attributed to the stubborn insistence to drive out one's own goals.
Feature, often lamented upon by Serbs themselves, is the disunity and discord. Slobodan Naumović: "Disunity and disaccord have acquired in the Serbian popular imaginary a notorious, quasi-demiurgic status. They are often perceived as being the chief malefactors in Serbian history, causing political or military defeats, and threatening to tear Serbian society completely apart."
Popular proverbs "two Serbs, three parties" and "God save that Serbs may unite!", and even the unofficial Serbian motto "only unity saves Serbs" (Samo sloga Srbina spasava) illustrate the national frustration with the inability to unite over important issues.

Salutations are obligatory at encounter, as a sign of good will, honest intentions, and good manners. They can be verbal, hand shakes, cheek kissing.
In old times the formula for salutation was "God helps (Pomaze Bog), answered by "God help you" (Bog Ti pomogao).
Today the usual formula of greeting is "Good day" (Dobar dan), "Good morning" (Dobro jutro), "Good evening" (Dobro vece).
At parting one says "See you" (Dovidjenja), "Good night" (Laku noc).
Travelers are seen off with words "Lucky journey" (Srecan put).
Handshakes are used, with appropriate greetings, between acquaintances, friends, and equals, and kisses are exchanged between close relatives, godfathers (kumovi), and blood brothers. When coming to a family gathering, slava, or some other feast, guests exchange kisses with host and hostess, kissing their cheeks three times.
Agreement is expressed by nodding, and disagreement by shaking one's head from left to right. Surprise is denoted by hitting one's forehead with a hand, and confusion by scratching one's head behind the ear. Winking denotes a secret message, thumb between the index finger and the third finger (sipak) as well as hitting the bent elbow of the left arm with the right hand means rude refusal, offense and contempt. It is a rule that a younger person greets the elder, the guest greets the host, a rider greets a pedestrian, a man greets a woman, and a passer by - those sitting or standing. Formerly, elder or important people were greeted by bowing, kissing their hand, and taking of caps.
Serbia is rich in agricultural and cattle breeding produce, vegetables and fruit, so it is natural that Serbs have a very strong interest in food.
The first written data about education of Serbs belong to the 9th century, when the first school was opened by Christian missionaries and educationalists Cyril and Method, the creators of Slavonic literacy. In the Middle Ages Serbian monasteries were centers of education and they remained to be so during the dark ages of Turkish occupation (14th - 19th centuries). At the beginning of the 18th century, the Serbs who fled to Austria opened several higher schools there. Education received a strong inspiration by the re-establishment of the Serbian state in 1804, and many secular schools began to appear, together with the Great School, an embryo of University in Belgrade, in 1808.
Between the two world wars, basic education (four years) became compulsory for girls too, and after World War Two a compulsory eight year education was introduced.
Almost whole generations (95% of pupils) go forward to high schools (there are about 500 of them in Serbia).
There are six universities, with 76 faculties, that receive 130,000 students every year, and 60 highly specialized schools (with two year courses), entered by 40,000 students every year. Unfortunately, many young people go abroad every year after having finished their education (brain drain).
Parents strive to provide for the education and specialization of their children, expecting them to continue with independent life and work, to provide for their families, and enter the economic and social life of the country.
Education is free for all.
The most typical Serbian folk dance is kolo. In a kolo, the dancers form an open or closed ring of people who hold each other's hands, belts, shoulders, etc. Kolo is a symbol of the sun's circle. The dance is accompanied by music, sometimes singing, but it can also be a so-called mute kolo (nemo kolo). Kolo dances differ in rhythm, step and also by the direction in which the dancers move. When kolo dancers move in the direction opposite the usual one, it is a kolo for the dead (mrtvacko kolo).
Football (soccer) is the most popular of all contemporary sports. It was introduced by Serbian students returning to Switzerland at the end of the 19th century, and the first football clubs were founded in Belgrade as early as 1903: "Soko" - "The Falcon" and "Srpski mac" - "The Serbian Sword". "Crvena zvezda" - "The Red Star", one of the most popular Serbian football clubs, won the European and the world championships in 1991. The quality of Serbian professional football is reflected in the number of Serbian football players playing for the best European and world clubs.
The gravestones (krajputasi) have very original, witty, or clever epitaphs, and they are decorated by multicolored images and scenes invoking the character of the dead.
Although the country is rich in wine and brandy (especially the famous sljivovica), alcoholism has never been a major social problem in the country. It does not include an important percentage of the population. The same applies to the problem of drugs. They are taken by a smaller number of young people, mainly in larger cities.
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Origin of the firesteels/4C's charges (ocila)
Ocila is the term that describes the four C-shaped elements on the coat of arms.
Another word in Serbian for the same thing is ognjila, but I do not think that this is ever used for those elements in this sense.
Ocila is called in English a firesteel, a cup or plate used for holding fire in religious service (or most usually beneath icons), providing the fragrant smoke.
Similar device is also known in Western European heraldry, then most usualy with opening above, often with fire bursting from it.
Željko Heimer, 28 September 1998
The meaning and use of this symbol is said to date back to the XIIIth century during the life of St. Sava, a Serbian prince, monk, and a patron of the Serbian Orthodox Church [est. 1219].
During that time of transition in Serbian maedieval history, the state was pressured by the Vatican to convert into Catholicism.
Since the state did not have its own independent ecclesiastic establishment, St. Sava called for establishment of Serbian independent Archiepiscopat, and as well called on all Serbs to unite against the pressure from The Vatican.
St. Sava said, 'Only Unity Saves the Serbs', in Serbian, Samo Sloga Srbina Spasava. Every word in that sentence begins with the letter S; in Cyrillic alphabet letter S is С, and there comes the explanation why there are four C's in the Serbian coat of arms.
The Serbian coat of arms represents a reminder for a need for Serbian people to unite with the cause to preserve their heritage and nationhood.

Metropolitan Soccer League

United Serbs

4526 N Milwaukee Ave

Chicago, IL 60630-3712

Ph: 773-736-6161
Chicago Fire - Toyota Park
7000 S. Harlem Avenue
Bridgeview, Illinois 60455


Go and see...

Vatican City

TARSIERS - people, leave them alone

Tarsiers are primates, mammals closely related to lemurs, monkeys, apes, and people.
They live in southeast Asia, in rainforests and bamboo forests in the Philippines and Indonesia and are arboreal, spending their entire life in trees. Tarsiers cannot walk on land; they hop when they are on the ground.
Anatomy: Tarsiers have enormous eyes, a long tail, and pads at the ends of each of their fingers and toes that let them climb trees very well. Their large eyes are excellent at seeing at night, but do not work well in daylight. The tarsier's neck is extremely flexible and can turn almost 360°. It can also move its ears to help locate prey. Tarsiers range from 3 to 6 inches (8 to 15 cm) long but their long tail adds another 5 to 11 inches (13 to 28 cm) of length. They are about the size of a squirrel.
These territorial animals mark their trees with urine.
Tarsiers are carnivores (meat-eaters)-tarsiers are the only primates that are completely carnivorous; they eat mostly insects, lizards, worms, and other very small animals.
They are nocturnal, most active at night.
Gestation takes about six months, and tarsiers give birth to single offspring.
Fossils of tarsiers and tarsiiform primates are found in Asia, Europe, and North America.
They also have the longest continuous fossil record of any primate genus, and the fossil record indicates that their dentition hasn't changed much, except in size, in the past 45 million years. For the past 45 million years, tarsiers have inhabited rainforests around the world, but now they only exist on a few islands in the Philippines, Borneo and Indonesia.
Tarsiers have never formed successful breeding colonies in captivity, and when caged, tarsiers have been known to injure and even kill themselves because of the stress.
The Philippine Tarsier was a common sight in the southern part of the island until the 1960s. Since then, the number has dwindled to as few as an estimated 1000 still left in the wild. Due to the quickly growing human population, which causes more and more forests to be converted to farmland, housing areas and roads, the place where the Philippine Tarsier can live its secluded life is disappearing. These mysterious primates struggle to survive as their home is cleared for crop growing.
Hunting tarsiers to sell as pets was until recently, a thriving industry. Because of its adorable and benign appearance, many have been lured to keep the Philippine Tarsier as pets. This demand fuels the capture and illegal trade of the animal further diminishing its remaining number.
The life span is 24 years when living in the wild, but only 12 when in cages and taken cared of by people. It is also known to die from psychological damage when around humans because its instinct is to be out in the wild. Moreover, its reduced life span in captivity is due to the fact that it is easily distressed by being displayed and physically handled during the day contrary to its natural biological rhythm.
Tarsiers rarely live long in captivity. It has been reported that some tarsiers were so traumatized by captivity that they committed suicide by beating their heads against the cages or drowning themselves on the drinking bowls.
Paradoxically, indigenous superstition coupled with relatively thick rainforest, particularly in Sarangani province, have apparently preserved this endangered species. Indigenous tribes leave the Philippine Tarsiers in the wild because they fear that these animals could bring bad luck. One belief passed down from ancient times is that they are pets belonging to spirits dwelling in giant fig trees, known as belete trees. If someone harms a tarsier they need to apologise to the spirits of the forest, or it’s thought they will encounter sickness or hardship in life

Afternoon Nap

I'm so tired!


Serbian Monesteries

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Isac Newton

Britanski naučnik Isak Njutn, otac moderne fizike i astronomije, u pismu iz 1704. godine predvideo je kraj sveta za 2060. godinu.
Njegovo pismo juče je izloženo u Hebrejskom univerzitetu u Jerusalimu u sklopu izložbe pod nazivom „Njutnove tajne”.
Čuveni racionalista, koji je kraljevskim izuzećem pošteđen zaređenja u engleskoj crkvi - što je bilo uobičajeno za akademika njegovog doba i zbog čega nije morao slediti njeno učenje - ipak je zasnovao svoje predviđanje na Biblijskom tekstu.
Njutn je utvrdio je da će svet nestati 1260. godina posle osnivanja rimske imperije u zapadnoj Evropi 800. godine naše ere.
Sa Univerziteta je saopšteno da je pismo prvi put javno izloženo od 1969. godine.
Njutnov rad krajem 17. veka na Univerzitetu Kembridž bio je kamen temeljac moderne nauke do otkrića relativiteta i kvantne mehanike u prošlom veku. Međutim, već je dugo poznato da se ovaj istaknuti fizičar iz engleskog mesta Grentama interesovao za alhemiju koje moderna nauka nije prihvatila.
Njutn je četiri godine proveo u pripremi rada iz alhemije.

Kryptonite in Serbia - Jadarite

Jadar Valley, Serbia

A new mineral matching kryptonite's unique chemistry, as described in the film Superman Returns, has been identified by scientists at the Natural History Museum and Canada's National Research Council.
The large green crystals of kryptonite have a devastating affect on the superhero. According to movie and comic-book storylines, kryptonite is supposed to sap Superman's powers whenever he is exposed to its large green crystals.

However, unlike its famous counterpart, the new mineral is white, powdery and not radioactive.

And, rather than coming from outer space, the real kryptonite was found in Serbia.
Geologists and mineralogists from mining group Rio Tinto discovered the unusual mineral. It didn't match anything known previously to science so they sort the help of mineral expert Dr Chris Stanley at the Natural History Museum.
'Towards the end of my research,' says Dr Stanley, 'I searched the web using the mineral's chemical formula, sodium lithium boron silicate hydroxide , and was amazed to discover that same scientific name written on a case of rock containing kryptonite stolen by Lex Luther from a museum in the film Superman Returns'.
'The new mineral does not contain fluorine and is white rather than green, but in all other respects the chemistry matches that for the rock containing kryptonite.
The mineral could be used as a source of lithium , which has many uses including in batteries, or as a source of borate, which is used for cleaning, also known as borax.

The mineral will be formally named Jadarite when it is described in the European Journal of Mineralogy later this year.


' Aeroput'

Nacionalna aviokompanija „Jat ervejz” obeležava 80. godinu postojanja i uspostavljanja civilnog vazdušnog saobraćaja u Srbiji. „Jat ervejz” je naslednik Društva za vazdušni saobraćaj „Aeroput”, koje je osnovano 17. juna 1927. godine, kao 10. kompanija u Evropi i 21. u svetu. Februara sledeće godine, otvorena je prva domaća vazdušna linija između Beograda i Zagreba, dok je između dva rata „Aeroput”, pored brojnih linija unutar Kraljevine Jugoslavije, održavao saobraćaj za Beč, Solun, Sofiju, Prag, Budimpeštu i Tiranu.

Posle Drugog svetskog rata, 1. aprila 1947. formiran je „Jugoslovenski aerotransport”, današnji „Jat ervejz”, koji je u drugoj polovini osamdesetih godina sa flotom od 33 aviona, na više od 300 redovnih linija, prevozio skoro pet miliona putnika godišnje, što ga je svrstavalo među 12 najvećih kompanija u Evropi i tridesetak u svetu. „

Jugoslovenski Aerotransport” promenio je ime u „Jat ervejz” 8. avgusta 2003. godine.
Flota nacionalne aviokompanije sada broji 12 letelica, osam „boinga 737” i četiri ATR-72, sa kojima saobraća prema više od 30 odredišta u 26 zemalja Evrope, Bliskog istoka i severne Afrike.
Srpski avioprevoznik je prošlu godinu, po prvi put posle 16 godina gubitaka, završio pozitivnim finansijskim rezultatom i dobitkom od 3,8 miliona evra uz povećanje broja prevezenih putnika za 17 odsto, na više od 1,2 miliona. (Tanjug)